Brazil | Services offered by oei in the framework of ERIN
Ehe aim of the ERIN program is to provide sustainable return and reintegration to returnees who have returned to Brazil from ERIN partner countries. OEI will provide meeting and welcoming services in the country to support returnees’ reintegration. Through the use of its human capital, infrastructure and Office Network, OEI will also provide sustainable return services to returnees in a speedy and efficient manner, in addition to monitoring post-return in order to guarantee sustainable reintegration.
OEI offers an individual reintegration plan to respond to the different needs of the returnee, with the aim of making the return and reintegration process a success.
The design of this reintegration plan is based on two cornerstones:
Information and Communication
OEI is responsible for updating the communication materials, which is understandable and produced in local language(s) to be used as program’s communication:
- OEI will be available, if the returnee wishes, to take contact prior to the return trip, to establish a relationship of trust between both OEI and the returnee. In addition, SPOC will be available for national counselors or other pre-departure entities in sending countries.
- OEI has arranged a Single Point of Contact (SPOC) in Europe for direct counseling for potential returnees before and after return.
- The Single Point of Contact also serves as relationship building before arrival of the returnee in Brazil. Contact details are shown as follows:
- OEI Brazil has also arranged a direct counseling service from Monday to Friday (8:30-17:30h) for returnees.
- On the website www.oei.org.br information about the service is available. OEI will answer the information requests within two working days via email:
Return and Reception
After the return, the beneficiary must go to or contact the OEI Office for the eligibility check. It is important to highlight:
- Personal Meetings
- Telephone or Skype Tracking
- Follow-up to the Resources
- Arrival Assistance
- Bussiness Start-Up Support
There are at least three “face to face” meetings with the returnee (meetings will take place on locations agreed taking into account returnee’s preferences.: First meeting will be held after 15 days upon return. A first reintegration plan us designed and objectives are fixed, tasks are established, etc. The second meeting will take place depending on the length of the reintegration plan. In cases of 6 month reintegration plans, it will take place after 3 months from the start. In cases of 12 months reintegration plans it will take place after 6 months from the start. The second meeting aims at monitoring the process and analyzing potential new needs. The third meeting aims at the final evaluation of the reintegration plan.
In addition, telephone or Skype meeting is offered to returnees who do not live in the capital city of the country where the OEI Office is located.
Additionally, follow-up is provided to the national resources (health, education, etc.) to which the returnee has been referred.
Arrival Assistance and Airport pick up: in cases where necessary and at the request of the member entity of ERIN Network, the returnees will be collected at the airport and be provided with support in the immigration and customs procedures. In addition, support will be provided to purchase transportation tickets to reach the final destination of the returnee.
Emergency housing and immediate necessities after return: for specific cases, we will work with local resources (education, health, etc.) to facilitate emergency housing, food, clothing, among others, to solve primary needs.
Support to business start-ups: business orientation in relation to local economic context, assistance with developing business ideas, business training, development of a viable business plan, assistance with business registration, etc.
Below are shown the general and specific services which OEI will provide in the framework of ERIN:
- Referral to administrative instances and social networks (pre-departure or post arrival): OEI will provide support to registration in the community, apply for missing documentation, access to local healthcare, social care services and family tracing services. In addition, OEI will provide support to the returnee for establishing social networks, e.g. making contacts with friends, family and local communities.
- Referral to legal service (e.g. land property and pension rights). OEI will refer to legal assistance if the services of a lawyer are required.
- Counseling and referral with regard to the enrolment in school education: minors may need to enroll in the local school system. OEI will support to the returnee in determining the educational level of the (underage) children and refer the returnee to the appropriate schools.
- Referral to vocational training/programme and assistance to labor market: OEI shall make use of its local or nation-wide infrastructure/network to support the returnee in identifying the appropriate vocational training/programme and support the returnee through enrolment in a vocational training/programme. This program can contribute to enhancing the returnee’s opportunities on the labor market. In addition, OEI will provide support to the returnee to access the labor market. This assistance may consist of referral to specialized employment agencies or job counseling.
- Assistance for entrepreneurship of business projects: the returnee who wants to set up a business will receive advice and support from OEI on how a business is started, what kind of business are revenue generators, what official documents are needed, what financial matters should be taken into account, and how to design and draw a business plan.
- Medical services: OEI shall explain to the returnee with medical needs what medical treatments are in place in the country of origin (medical system) and provide clarification on the medical procedure which needs to be followed and the costs that are involved. In addition, the returnee with medical needs may want to see a practitioner/doctor or even visit the hospital for treatment. Also, it is possible that the returnee may want to see a practitioner/doctor for a medical check-up upon arrival. OEI shall, together with the returnee, determine what the medical needs are and consequently refer him/ her to the appropriate medical facility/treatment. In case the returnee wants to obtain additional medication after return, OEI must direct the returnee to the appropriate pharmacy/medical clinic to get that, though bearing in mind that the cost price of the medication and the medical treatment must be in line with the local standards.
- Psychological support and social assistance: The returnee with psychological problems may want to get or continue his/her psychological treatment after return in the country of origin. OEI shall, together with the returnee, determine what the medical needs are and refer to the adequate entity, including the setting of an initial interview. On the other hand, the returnee with this kind of needs will be referred to the Social Services closest to his/her home. OEI shall, together with the returnee, determine what the social needs are and consequently refer him/her to the appropriate social facility including the arrangement of an intake interview.
- Family contact to take up contact with parents/relatives before the return in order to prepare the process.
- When the parents/ relatives of the UAM cannot be identified prior to return, OEI must organize adequate accommodation (in line with local standards) for the reception of the child. The adequate accommodation must be able to provide at least reception, schooling and reintegration to the UAM.
- When a UAM is placed in an adequate accommodation, an official governmental instance (e.g. Ministry of Social Affairs or Child Protection) must be held legally responsible for the UAM’s well-being. OEI shall provide all necessary support to the UAM in order to arrange the guardianship.
Reintegration Opportunities in Brazil
The Brazilian economy experienced moderate GDP growth in 2013 and 2014, at 2.3% and 0.1% respectively. In 2015 it suffered negative growth of 3.8%, according to data published by Brazil’s Ministry of Industry, Foreign Trade and Services and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, which was due to the decline of national industry, under pressure, by and large, from the processing industry. Nevertheless, in 2015 there was notable growth in the mineral extraction and agricultural industries.
Elsewhere, the rate of inflation went from 5.9% in 2013 to 10.7% in 2015, yet a positive trading balance is also noticeable, moving from -4,053 en 2013 to 19.685 billion dollars in 2015, providing a significant contribution to the GDP. This is explained through growth in exports of around 6%.
In terms of the in-depth analysis of industries in the Brazilian economy, it is worth noting the importance of Services (70%), followed by industry (23.8%) and the Primary Sector (6.2%).
In accordance with the above, we can establish that a large part of the labor force will continue to be concentrated in the service industry over the coming years, and especially in the exports area. Currently, the service industry accounts for 63% of employment.
The unemployment rate has significantly decreased since 2003, falling from 13% in that year to the 4.3% recorded in 2014, whereas in 2015 it rose to 6.9%. Nevertheless, the positive short-term forecasts for the Brazilian economy suggest that this figure will gradually fall.
Brazil, as with other countries, is currently experiencing a complex economic situation with difficulties in different areas. However, such problems also generate opportunities, particularly the broad opportunities to design and launch on the market and consolidate business ventures. Returnees can undertake micro-projects in retail, for example, via grocery shops or stores for mobiles and other electronic devices. There are also numerous opportunities to successfully start up small businesses in the food and electronics industry. This is due to the positive global market trend and the nature of this type of business.
The main employment opportunities are concentrated in the most populated cities, for instance Sao Paulo, with its 12 million inhabitants, Río de Janeiro with 6.5, Salvador with 3 and Brasilia and Fortaleza with 2.5 million apiece.
With respect to social indicators, Brazil has a per capita income of 15,838 dollars and a Gini coefficient of 0.547. It is also 75th on the UN’s Human Development Index (HDI).
Despite a similar negative trend experienced in 2016, forecasts for the main national and international institutions point to the economic situation in 2017 reverting and a year which will mark a return of economic growth. For instance, the World Bank has stated that the Brazilian economy is expected to grow 1.4% in 2017.
Opportunities for growth are identified in the following industries, giving rise to employment possibilities:
- The service industry: There is strong employment potential in the customer service industry due to the growth of business, which is particularly applicable to the hotel industry. Other in-demand professions are those linked to the following spheres:
- Transport and logistics: drivers, chauffeurs and logistics experts, among others.
- Care services: nurses and social workers, among others.
- Leisure and culture: cultural managers, customer services and sales people.
- Company services: office clerks and accountants.
- Food products: Traditional food-related professions are in demand, for instance bakers, pastry chefs and cooks, as are agricultural professions linked to the industry, for instance managers of viticulture or oils due to the growing demand of high-quality products like olive oil and wine.
- Machine tools and capital equipment: Professions such as electricians, locksmiths, joiners, plumbers, mechanical engineers and fuels, materials and systems engineers, among others.
- The environment: Professions in the fields of waste management and the installation of equipment and systems adapted to new environmental standards.
- The petrol industry: Operators, chemical engineers, geologists and physicists.
- The agriculture industry: all professions linked to the industry.
Total health care expenditure in Brazil was 8.3% of the GDP in 2014, according to data from the World Bank. A large part of the health services in the Brazilian health system are funded by the public sector. In the biggest and most populated cities, there are very long waiting lists, particularly for the most specialized services such as surgery. On the other hand, it must be noted that the public system co-exists with private healthcare, and, in fact, three quarters of the hospitals in Brazil are funded and managed privately.
In terms of the education system, expenditure on education was at 5.9% of the GDP in 2012. The Brazilian education system falls under the responsibility Ministry of Education, which is in charge of providing financial and technical assistance to the states, the Federal District and municipalities for the development of education systems.
Education is compulsory for all children between the ages of six and fourteen, and is free in all state schools.
With respect to the above, we must point out that in recent years major efforts have gone towards expanding budget allocations for healthcare and education spending, although there is still room for improvement.
Service Management with a Migrant Rights Approach
OEI shall develop its activities taking into account the following principles in:
- individual return approach
- equal opportunities
- adherence to applicable international principles and standards in migrations affairs; and
- reintegration plans designed to safeguard dignity and rights of migrants in return operations.