Argentina | Services offered by oei in the framework of ERIN
Ehe aim of the ERIN program is to provide sustainable return and reintegration to returnees who have returned to Argentina from ERIN partner countries. OEI will provide meeting and welcoming services in the country to support returnees’ reintegration. Through the use of its human capital, infrastructure and Office Network, OEI will also provide sustainable return services to returnees in a speedy and efficient manner, in addition to monitoring post-return in order to guarantee sustainable reintegration.
OEI offers an individual reintegration plan to respond to the different needs of the returnee, with the aim of making the return and reintegration process a success.
The design of this reintegration plan is based on two cornerstones:
Information and Communication
OEI is responsible for updating the communication materials, which is understandable and produced in local language(s) to be used as program’s communication:
- OEI will be available, if the returnee wishes, to take contact prior to the return trip, to establish a relationship of trust between both OEI and the returnee. In addition, SPOC will be available for national counselors or other pre-departure entities in sending countries.
- OEI has arranged a Single Point of Contact (SPOC) in Europe for direct counseling for potential returnees before and after return.
- The Single Point of Contact also serves as relationship building before arrival of the returnee in Argentina. Contact details are shown as follows:
- OEI Argentina has also arranged a direct counseling service from Monday to Friday (8:30-17:30h) for returnees.
- On the website www.oei.org.ar information about the service is available. OEI will answer the information requests within two working days via email:
Return and Reception
After the return, the beneficiary must go to or contact the OEI Office for the eligibility check. It is important to highlight:
- Personal Meetings
- Telephone or Skype Tracking
- Follow-up to the Resources
- Arrival Assistance
- Bussiness Start-Up Support
There are at least three “face to face” meetings with the returnee (meetings will take place on locations agreed taking into account returnee’s preferences.: First meeting will be held after 15 days upon return. A first reintegration plan us designed and objectives are fixed, tasks are established, etc. The second meeting will take place depending on the length of the reintegration plan. In cases of 6 month reintegration plans, it will take place after 3 months from the start. In cases of 12 months reintegration plans it will take place after 6 months from the start. The second meeting aims at monitoring the process and analyzing potential new needs. The third meeting aims at the final evaluation of the reintegration plan.
In addition, telephone or Skype meeting is offered to returnees who do not live in the capital city of the country where the OEI Office is located.
Additionally, follow-up is provided to the national resources (health, education, etc.) to which the returnee has been referred.
Arrival Assistance and Airport pick up: in cases where necessary and at the request of the member entity of ERIN Network, the returnees will be collected at the airport and be provided with support in the immigration and customs procedures. In addition, support will be provided to purchase transportation tickets to reach the final destination of the returnee.
Emergency housing and immediate necessities after return: for specific cases, we will work with local resources (education, health, etc.) to facilitate emergency housing, food, clothing, among others, to solve primary needs.
Support to business start-ups: business orientation in relation to local economic context, assistance with developing business ideas, business training, development of a viable business plan, assistance with business registration, etc.
Below are shown the general and specific services which OEI will provide in the framework of ERIN:
- Referral to administrative instances and social networks (pre-departure or post arrival): OEI will provide support to registration in the community, apply for missing documentation, access to local healthcare, social care services and family tracing services. In addition, OEI will provide support to the returnee for establishing social networks, e.g. making contacts with friends, family and local communities.
- Referral to legal service (e.g. land property and pension rights). OEI will refer to legal assistance if the services of a lawyer are required.
- Counseling and referral with regard to the enrolment in school education: minors may need to enroll in the local school system. OEI will support to the returnee in determining the educational level of the (underage) children and refer the returnee to the appropriate schools.
- Referral to vocational training/programme and assistance to labor market: OEI shall make use of its local or nation-wide infrastructure/network to support the returnee in identifying the appropriate vocational training/programme and support the returnee through enrolment in a vocational training/programme. This program can contribute to enhancing the returnee’s opportunities on the labor market. In addition, OEI will provide support to the returnee to access the labor market. This assistance may consist of referral to specialized employment agencies or job counseling.
- Assistance for entrepreneurship of business projects: the returnee who wants to set up a business will receive advice and support from OEI on how a business is started, what kind of business are revenue generators, what official documents are needed, what financial matters should be taken into account, and how to design and draw a business plan.
- Medical services: OEI shall explain to the returnee with medical needs what medical treatments are in place in the country of origin (medical system) and provide clarification on the medical procedure which needs to be followed and the costs that are involved. In addition, the returnee with medical needs may want to see a practitioner/doctor or even visit the hospital for treatment. Also, it is possible that the returnee may want to see a practitioner/doctor for a medical check-up upon arrival. OEI shall, together with the returnee, determine what the medical needs are and consequently refer him/ her to the appropriate medical facility/treatment. In case the returnee wants to obtain additional medication after return, OEI must direct the returnee to the appropriate pharmacy/medical clinic to get that, though bearing in mind that the cost price of the medication and the medical treatment must be in line with the local standards.
- Psychological support and social assistance: The returnee with psychological problems may want to get or continue his/her psychological treatment after return in the country of origin. OEI shall, together with the returnee, determine what the medical needs are and refer to the adequate entity, including the setting of an initial interview. On the other hand, the returnee with this kind of needs will be referred to the Social Services closest to his/her home. OEI shall, together with the returnee, determine what the social needs are and consequently refer him/her to the appropriate social facility including the arrangement of an intake interview.
- Family contact to take up contact with parents/relatives before the return in order to prepare the process.
- When the parents/ relatives of the UAM cannot be identified prior to return, OEI must organize adequate accommodation (in line with local standards) for the reception of the child. The adequate accommodation must be able to provide at least reception, schooling and reintegration to the UAM.
- When a UAM is placed in an adequate accommodation, an official governmental instance (e.g. Ministry of Social Affairs or Child Protection) must be held legally responsible for the UAM’s well-being. OEI shall provide all necessary support to the UAM in order to arrange the guardianship.
Reintegration Opportunities in Argentina
Argentina is Latina America’s fourth economy, after Brazil, Mexico and Colombia. Its GDP per capita is around 18,917 dollars, according to data from the IMF in 2014, which is second in the entire region, behind Chile.
Following a slight GDP growth of 0.5% in 2014, as a result of reduced domestic demand and a fall in exports, the situation changed in 2015, with the GDP growing at 2.4% due to expansionary fiscal policies. This has come about despite its weak industrial production and exports.
The main problem with the Argentinean economy is inflation, with the increase in petrol prices and the devaluation of the peso contributing to this trend. However, fiscal policy adjustments, ongoing moderate domestic demand and the strengthening of domestic supply through improvements to micro-economic policies will gradually turn this situation around. Likewise, all these policies will contribute to reducing the fiscal deficit.
With respect to the balance of trade, the aforementioned devaluation of the Argentinean peso is significant in driving the exports of goods and services to reduce the trade deficit.
The practically non-existent restrictions to the inflow of foreign investment, according to data from the OCDE’s index of Restrictions to Direct Foreign Investment, provides opportunities to develop existing markets and the emergence of new markets, which could mean a great deal of employment opportunities.
The rate of unemployment sat at 6.9% in 2015, and Argentina was also 40thout of 188 in the UN’s Human Development Index (HDI).
Argentina, as with other countries, is currently experiencing a complex economic situation with difficulties in different areas. However, such problems also generate opportunities, particularly the broad opportunities to design and launch on the market and consolidate business ventures. Returnees can undertake micro-projects in retail, for example, via grocery shops or stores for mobiles and other electronic devices. There are also numerous opportunities to successfully start up small businesses in the food and electronics industry. This is due to the positive global market trend and the nature of this type of business.
The main employment opportunities are concentrated in Buenos Aires, with its 13 million inhabitants, representing 30.5%of the population and 37% of the country’s GDP. That said, there are also job opportunities in cities like Córdoba, Rosario and Mendoza.
The country also has skilled labor, agricultural, energy and mineral resources. Job opportunities are identified in the following industries:
- The service industry: There is strong employment potential in the customer service industry due to the growth of business, which is particularly applicable to the hotel industry. Other in-demand professions are those linked to the following areas:
- Transport and logistics: drivers, chauffeurs and logistics experts, among others.
- Care services: nurses and social workers, among others.
- Leisure and culture: cultural managers, customer services and sales people.
- Company services: office clerks and accountants.
- Agri-food: professions in the primary sector, as well as the relevant professions for manufacturing food products (cooks, bakers, pastry chefs, etc.).
- Viticulture: The 2020 Viticulture Plan stands out for driving the industry forwards, potentially generating major employment for professionals or those interested in this industry (crop management, sales, customer services, etc.)
- Automotive industry: this industry has a wide range of professional opportunities for mechanics, engineers, sales professionals, insurance companies, etc.
- Mining: Despite the drop in investments in this industry, it continues to hold sway in the economy. Opportunities are identified for operators, chemical engineers and geologists, among others.
- Real estate: Professionals in sales and customer services are in demand.
According to data from the World Bank, the total expenditure on health in Argentina reached 4.8% of the GDP in 2014. The Argentinean health system is made up of the public sector (covering around 50% of the population), insurance companies or social plans and the private sector. However, there has been a slight decrease in insurance companies, while the private sector only covers 5% of the population.
It must be noted that access to the health system is more general and provides greater coverage in big cities and centres with more resources.
In terms of education, public spending was notably at 5.1% of the GDP in 2012. The Argentinean education system is considered one of the best in Latin America, along with the Cuban and Uruguayan systems. The management of the education system corresponds to the national government, the provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.
Education is compulsory from 4 to 18 years of age and is free in state schools at all academic levels. Education is divided into the following levels: infant, primary, secondary and higher education.
The macro-economic improvements expected for the coming years in the Argentinean economy could potentially mean steering public policies towards greater coverage of the social needs of the population. According to data by the World Bank, the Argentinean economy will grow in 2017 by 2.7% and in both 2018 and 2019 by 3.2%.
Service Management with a Migrant Rights Approach
OEI shall develop its activities taking into account the following principles in:
- individual return approach
- equal opportunities
- adherence to applicable international principles and standards in migrations affairs; and
- reintegration plans designed to safeguard dignity and rights of migrants in return operations.